Most Viewed: Last ONE YEAR
  • Review|Open Access

    Energetic metabolism in cardiomyocytes: molecular basis of heart ischemia and arrhythmogenesis

    María Sofía Martínez, Andrés García, Eliana Luzardo, Mervin Chávez-Castillo, Luis Carlos Olivar, Juan Salazar, Manuel Velasco, Joselyn Joanna Rojas Quintero, Valmore Bermúdez
    Cardiac muscle contraction is a strictly regulated process which conjugates a series of electrophysiological, biochemical and mechanic events, resulting in the pumping of blood to all bodily tissues. These phenomena require a very high energetic demand both for generating the necessary mechanical force, and for maintaining cellular homeostasis during the process. In the myocardium, fatty acids (FA) represent the main energy substrate, although other secondary substrates, such as glucose and ketone bodies, may also be used. Nevertheless, under certain conditions such as heart failure or... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:230-41. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.34
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2731  | Downloaded:162
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Sternal malunion fixation using a Titanium Sternal Fixation System in a diabetic patient. The first of its kind in Scotland

    Sanjeet Singh Avtaar Singh, Massimo Capoccia, Kamal Deep, Nawwar Al-Attar
    Sternal non-union is a rare but serious complication post-sternotomy. It is defined as sternal pain with clicking, instability, or both for more than 6 months in the absence of infection and usually presents in an outpatient setting. It may result in multiple admissions to the hospital for surgical debridement and wound care therapies. Several risk factors have been identified in the literature but treatment options are limited. Proven benefits of increased stability and decreased incidence of non-union using the principles of rigid fixation have been described in other surgical specialties... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:242-5. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.25
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2714  | Downloaded:73
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  • Topic: Atherosclerosis and Related Diseases|Open Access

    Relationship between peculiarities of atrial fibrillation, body mass index and adipokines levels

    Oleksandr Bilovol, Yuliya Shaposhnikova, Iryna Ilchenko, Anna Shalimova
    Aim: To assess the value of body mass index (BMI) and adipokine levels in predicting development of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the general population. Methods: Three hundred and ninety eight patients were examined for the presence of phenotype metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), according to the Wildman criteria; adipokine levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay method; AF was assessed by electrocardiography (ECG) and/or by ECG diurnal monitoring. Results: Obesity (group 1) and overweight (group 2) was present in 23.7% and 42.0% of participants; while 21.1% were normal body weight... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:196-201. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.17
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2067  | Downloaded:83
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  • Topic: Atherosclerosis and Related Diseases|Open Access

    New markers of atherosclerosis: a threshold level of heteroplasmy in mtDNA mutations

    Margarita A. Sazonova, Anastasia I. Ryzhkova, Vasily V. Sinyov, Elena V. Galitsyna, Varvara A. Orekhova, Alexandra A. Melnichenko, Alexander N. Orekhov, Alessio L. Ravani, Igor A. Sobenin
    Aim: The aim of the present article was the detection of threshold heteroplasmy level of mitochondrial DNA mutations, above which a patient is at increased risk of atherosclerotic lesions. Besides, this parameter was detected for mutations, in which after reaching threshold heteroplasmy level, a protective antiatherogenic effect started to appear. Methods: The participants of the study were 700 women and men from the Moscow region. Fragments of DNA, amplified by polymerase chain reaction, were analyzed with pyrosequencing technology. Then on the basis of pyrograms’ peaks in the samples, the... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:182-91. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.16
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1751  | Downloaded:95
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  • Review|Open Access

    Metabolic risk in depression and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: are the metabolic syndrome and an increase in cardiovascular risk unavoidable?

    Mervin Chávez-Castillo, Ángel Ortega, Manuel Nava, Jorge Fuenmayor, Victor Lameda, Manuel Velasco, Valmore Bermúdez, Joselyn Rojas-Quintero
    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, and has become an epidemic in modern medical practice; notorious for frequently co-occurring with multiple comorbidities, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and its various risk factors comprised in the metabolic syndrome (MS). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely used class of psychotropic drugs in this and many other clinical scenarios; yet their impact on cardiometabolic health has not been elucidated. The objective of this review was to summarize current views... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:6. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.02
    Published on: 18 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1670  | Downloaded:99
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  • Review|Open Access

    An overview of different methods of myocardial protection currently employed peri-transplantation

    Sanjeet Singh Avtaar Singh, Sudeep Das De, Cristiano Spadaccio, Colin Berry, Nawwar Al-Attar
    Myocardial protection is integral to the functioning of hearts in day to day cardiac surgery. However, due to the longer ischaemic times, it becomes pivotal in the management of organs during transplantation. There are many different strategies employed to ensure diligent and judicious myocardial protection during donor management, transportation of the heart and the post-operative period. Given the limited supply of organs and the increasing waiting lists for heart transplants worldwide, it has become an area of renewed interest with many innovations and inventions using the principles of... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:213-29. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.26
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1583  | Downloaded:73
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  • Review|Open Access

    Adipose tissue-derived cytokines, CTRPs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in metabolism and the cardiovascular system

    Ya-Jing Wang, Jian-Li Zhao, Wayne Bond Lau, Jing Liu, Rui Guo, Xin-Liang Ma
    Increasing evidence indicates that adipose tissue-originated cytokines mediate communication between obesity-related exogenous molecules and the molecular events that initiate the metabolic syndrome and the inflammatory responses in the cardiovascular system (CVS). Adipose tissue-derived cytokines including the C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related proteins (CTRPs), a 15-member family of novel adipokines, has attracted much interest due to its metabolic regulatory and anti-inflammatory effect and appear to play a pathophysiological role in metabolism and immunity. To date, 15 members of CTRP... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:202-12. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.29
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1368  | Downloaded:92
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Temporizing amplatzer closure of an aorto-enteric fistula associated with a blind aortic stump via a translumbar approach

    S. Keisin Wang, Justin R. King, Ashley R. Gutwein, Raghu L. Motaganahalli, Andres Fajardo, Gary W. Lemmon
    We present a case of an aorto-enteric fistula (AEF) with chronic, persistent bleeding from a blind aortic stump managed by endovascular means. This novel approach may have extended the life of a patient who would otherwise have been subject to a high perioperative morbidity or persistent bleeding and death. While our patient ultimately expired, we believe this technique can be considered for temporization in highly-selected patients. Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:3. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.38
    Published on: 7 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1352  | Downloaded:69
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  • Review|Open Access

    Traumatic pulmonary artery injury: a review of the recent literature

    Youichi Yanagawa, Kouhei Ishikawa, Hiroki Nagasawa, Ikuto Takeuchi, Kei Jitsuiki, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Kazuhiko Omori
    Pulmonary artery injury (PAI) is rare, lethal clinical entity. Traumatic PAI is anatomically classified into transection/rupture/laceration, pseudoaneurysm, dissection and fistula. In addition, traumatic PAI is clinically classified into two major categories: iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic, depending on the mechanism of the trauma. The frequency, clinical symptoms and treatment differ between the two clinical categories. If PAI can be managed appropriately and promptly in patients without cardiac arrest, the patient may be saved, as PAI can be easily controlled with appropriate procedures... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:1. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.37
    Published on: 26 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1351  | Downloaded:91
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  • Topic: Atherosclerosis and Related Diseases|Open Access

    HDL subfraction distribution and HDL function in untreated dyslipidemic patients

    Mariann Harangi, Anita Szentpéteri, Bíborka Nádró, Hajnalka Lőrincz, Ildikó Seres, Dénes Páll, György Paragh
    Aim: The protective role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) against atherosclerosis is well known. However, both structural and functional changes of the HDL particles may affect its protective efficacy. Increased levels of HDL-associated myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreased HDL-linked paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity have been reported in dyslipidemic patients. Some changes in HDL subfraction distributions were also studied previously, but data on structural and functional changes in dyslipidemia are not complete. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate these qualitative and quantitative... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:166-73. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.27
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1329  | Downloaded:79
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  • Topic: Atherosclerosis and Related Diseases|Open Access

    Is insulin pro-atherogenic at the cellular level?

    Igor A. Sobenin, Varvara A. Orekhova, Andrey V. Grechko, Alexander N. Orekhov
    Aim: This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that insulin treatment has unexpected pro-atherogenic effects at the cellular level, namely, proliferative activity and intracellular cholesterol content. Methods: Primary cultures of subendothelial cells derived from non-atherosclerotic human aorta and mouse peritoneal macrophages were used to investigate the in vitro effect of insulin on atherosclerosis-related parameters, such as cellular cholesterol content and proliferation rate. Additionally, the effect of insulin treatment in 33 type 1 diabetic patients on serum atherogenicity... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:174-81. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.19
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1124  | Downloaded:72
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  • Topic: Atherosclerosis and Related Diseases|Open Access

    Proinflammatory monocyte polarization in type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease

    Nikita G. Nikiforov, Karina O. Galstyan, Liudmila V. Nedosugova, Natalia V. Elizova, Kira I. Kolmychkova, Ekaterina A. Ivanova
    Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with rapid progression of atherosclerosis. There is no doubt that inflammation is involved in atherogenesis. Recent studies showed the relationship between the development of atherosclerotic plaque formation and the amount of pro-inflammatory (M1) activated macrophages in situ. Methods: The authors studied the ability of circulating monocytes isolated from patients with diabetes (n = 28), coronary heart disease (CHD) (n = 27) and healthy subjects (n = 50) to be activated into M1 phenotype in vitro. Results: Increased levels of basal and... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:192-5. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.21
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1093  | Downloaded:87
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  • Review|Open Access

    Surgical revascularization for acute coronary syndromes: a narrative review

    Joseph H. Joo, Joshua M. Liao, Faisal G. Bakaeen, Danny Chu
    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) comprises a spectrum of disease that includes unstable angina, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Clinical management of patients with ACS has greatly evolved over the last two decades, but ACS remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. This narrative review describes the indication, timing, and approaches to surgical revascularization in the context of ACS. In particular, the review discusses and compares the utilization of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:2. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.36
    Published on: 2 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1091  | Downloaded:122
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  • Review|Open Access

    Percutaneous coronary intervention in the elderly: current updates and trends

    Mohammed J. Arisha, Dina A. Ibrahim, Ahmed A. Abouarab, Mohamed Rahouma, Mohamed K. Kamel, Massimo Baudo, Kritika Mehta, Mario F. L. Gaudino
    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death with acute coronary syndrome accounting for more than 30% of causes of mortality in the elderly population. The rate of growth of the older segment of the population has increased exponentially and will become more pronounced in the future. Historically, there has been a paucity of clinical trials investigating the challenges and outcomes of more invasive treatment strategies such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for that very segment of the population. However, the safety, efficacy, and outcomes of PCI in the older population... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:14. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.29
    Published on: 9 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1089  | Downloaded:73
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  • Review|Open Access

    Research into biodegradable polymeric stents: a review of experimental and modelling work

    Tianyang Qiu, Liguo Zhao
    Bioresorbable stents (BRSs) are regarded as the next-generation medical devices to treat blocked or diseased arteries. The use of BRSs aims to reduce the risk of late stent thrombosis and long-term tissue inflammation associated with permanent metallic stents. BRSs are designed to relieve symptoms immediately and also provide mechanical support for an appropriate time period before they are fully absorbed by human body. To promote clinical adoption of BRSs or even to substitute metallic stents, the mechanical performance of BRSs needs to be thoroughly investigated and quantitatively... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:12. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.13
    Published on: 5 Jun 2018  | Viewed:1062  | Downloaded:59
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Early treatment of functional tricuspid regurgitation at the time of mitral valve surgery: an increased risk or an additional benefit?

    Paolo Nardi, Calogera Pisano, Antonio Pellegrino, Fabio Bertoldo, Sabrina Ferrante, Monica Greci, Sara Rita Vacirca, Marco Russo, Giovanni Ruvolo
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:4. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.35
    Published on: 13 Mar 2018  | Viewed:920  | Downloaded:71
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    The first INSPIRIS RESILIA Aortic ValveTM replacement (Edwards Lifesciences) in endocarditis

    Sanjeet Singh Avtaar Singh, Gwyn Beattie, David Reid, Philip Curry
    There is an increasing number of patients who have surgery during the active phase of infective endocarditis. Despite the decreasing in-hospital mortality and increasing early intervention rate, optimal timing for surgery remains a difficult decision. For patients with mental illnesses, the choice of valve is another factor to consider as non-adherence may lead to serious adverse events Antipsychotic medications may also alter the metabolism of vitamin K antagonists increasing the risk of stroke or major haemorrhage. We report a case of a 19-year-old man with a history of Ehlers-Danlos... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Cardiovascular Surgery
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:10. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.18
    Published on: 15 May 2018  | Viewed:914  | Downloaded:32
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Adherence to guidelines: primary prevention with aspirin in 1125 medical check-up participants

    Jin Hee Im, Sang Won Han, Seon Yeong Lee, Jong Sam Baik
    Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to apply the current recommendations on aspirin use for primary prevention in Korean participants undergoing a medical check-up. Methods: Adults aged 50 to 69 years were eligible for the study if they did not have a history of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) or stroke. The 10-year CVD risk was calculated using the ASCVD risk estimator (http://tools.acc.org/ASCVD-Risk-Estimator). Results: A total of 1125 participants were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 57 years, and 32% of the participants... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebrovascular Diseases
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:5. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.07
    Published on: 18 Apr 2018  | Viewed:746  | Downloaded:34
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Repair of mitral subvalvular apparatus and a calcified left ventricle aneurysm

    Kasra Shaikhrezai, Sanjeet Singh Avtaar Singh, Karim Morcos, Steve Hunter
    Left ventricle (LV) myocardial infarction may result in changes to the structure of the subvalvular apparatus. This may lead to a functional regurgitation if accompanied by annular dilatation preventing coaptation of leaflets. Scar tissue formation in the left ventricle may also lead to aneurysm of the left ventricle. This can then calcify, making repair of the leaflet technically challenging. We present a case of a mitral valve repair with concomitant repair of left ventricle aneurysm in a 75-year-old gentleman who suffered an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction to the lateral wall... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Cardiovascular Surgery
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:9. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.17
    Published on: 10 May 2018  | Viewed:696  | Downloaded:19
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  • Review|Open Access

    Ruptured isolated descending thoracic aortic aneurysm: open or endovascular repair?

    Amer Harky, Nichola Manu, Rafal Al Nasiri, Dilan Sanli, Ciaran Grafton-Clarke, Jeffrey Shi Kai Chan, Chris Ho Ming Wong
    Descending thoracic aortic aneurysm management has gained momentum and became a topic of many debates at international levels since the evolution of endovascular repair. Ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm is a clinical emergency which is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates if not managed properly. Prior to thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), open repair (OR) was the gold standard management, however since the evolution of TEVAR, this has changed. Several centers have reported many of their experiences and published that TEVAR can provide equal or even... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:8. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.12
    Published on: 7 May 2018  | Viewed:643  | Downloaded:32
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Immunohistochemistry of the circadian clock in mouse and human vascular tissues

    Ciprian B. Anea, Ana M. Merloiu, David J. R. Fulton, Vijay Patel, R. Dan Rudic
    Aim: The circadian clock is a molecular network that controls the body physiological rhythms. In blood vessels, the circadian clock components modulate vascular remodeling, blood pressure, and signaling. The goal in this study was to determine the pattern of expression of circadian clock proteins in the endothelium, smooth muscle, and adventitia of the vasculature of human and mouse tissues. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed in frozen sections of mouse aorta, common carotid artery, femoral artery, lung, and heart at 12 AM and 12 PM for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per and other clock... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Remodeling 2018: the Updates
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:16. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.46
    Published on: 20 Jul 2018  | Viewed:607  | Downloaded:44
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  • Review|Open Access

    Advantages and disadvantages of total arterial coronary artery bypass graft as compared to venous coronary artery bypass graft

    Dickson Dewantoro, Antonio Nenna, Umberto Satriano, Massimo Chello, Cristiano Spadaccio
    Considering the plethora of literature about surgical revascularization, this editorial aims to discuss the most recent studies about the effects of total arterial coronary artery bypass graft (TACABG) compared with CABG that involves venous graft (VCABG) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Patients were sampled from published papers that studied various aspects involving TACABG or VCABG. Resulting samples were used to compare the complexity and 5 years’ outcomes of TACABG to VCABG in the revascularization of coronary arteries. TACABG provides a better prognosis with... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Cardiovascular Surgery
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:20. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.50
    Published on: 16 Aug 2018  | Viewed:566  | Downloaded:34
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Endovascular treatment of an iatrogenic superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula after Nissen fundoplication

    S. Keisin Wang, Jie Xie, Raghu L. Motaganahalli
    We present a case of a superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula (SMAVF) diagnosed four years after index Nissen fundoplication and examine the associated imaging, clinical course, and surgical treatment followed by a review of the limited, available literature. From a transbrachial approach, a covered stent was successfully deployed in the superior mesenteric artery to exclude the fistula after confirmation of the site of pathology on both digital subtraction angiography and intravascular ultrasound. Follow-up imaging demonstrated continued exclusion of the anomalous fistula with complete... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:7. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.15
    Published on: 27 Apr 2018  | Viewed:566  | Downloaded:18
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Plasmatic biomarkers of inflammation correlate with 18FDG-PET-CT and microembolic signals in patients with carotid stenosis

    Hubertus Mueller, Loraine Fisch, Christophe Bonvin, Karl Lovblad, Osman Ratib, Patrice Lalive, Stephane Pagano, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Jean-Pierre Willi, Roman Sztajzel
    Aim: To determine whether plasmatic biomarkers correlate with 18fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) and presence of microembolic signals (MES) detected by transcranial Doppler in patients with carotid stenosis. Methods: 18FDG-PET-CT and MES detection was performed in consecutive patients with 50% to 99% symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Uptake index was defined by a target to background ratio (TBR) between maximum standardized uptake value of the carotid plaque and the average uptake of the jugular veins. The analysis of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebrovascular Diseases
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:13. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.19
    Published on: 5 Jun 2018  | Viewed:528  | Downloaded:19
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  • Topic: Atherosclerosis and Related Diseases|Open Access

    Introduction of the special issue “Atherosclerosis and Related Diseases”

    Alexander N. Orekhov, Ekaterina A. Ivanova
    Vessel Plus 2017;1:163-5. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2017.33
    Published on: 28 Dec 2017  | Viewed:521  | Downloaded:53
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  • Review|Open Access

    Who is the next for aortic valve implantation? Present and future indications

    Giuseppe Verolino, Alessia Delli Veneri, Myriam Carpenito, Francesco Piccirillo, Leonardo Aurino, Annunziata Nusca
    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) represents the most prevalent valvular defect worldwide. It is a progressive disease with a long latency interval and a poor prognosis after symptoms present. According to current European Society of Cardiology guidelines, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is recommended in all patients with severe symptomatic AS and a predicted survival longer than one year, who are not suitable for surgical valve replacement. Despite these recommendations, several studies over the past few years suggest extending these indications towards lower risk AS populations.... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Cardiovascular Surgery
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:17. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.32
    Published on: 2 Aug 2018  | Viewed:479  | Downloaded:24
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Genetic variants of renin on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy

    Pulakes Purkait, Kalpataru Halder, Jammigumpula Masthanaiah Naidu, Biswanath Sarkar
    Aim: Renin, a component of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS), is produced in the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney. It is an important factor for the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte balance and encoded by the REN gene. Recent studies suggest that the RAAS is a regulator of kidney functions. Individuals with REN variants have been associated with high blood pressure. We substantiated the hypothesis that genetic variants of REN gene have significant association with prevalence of nephropathy and in the development of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:19. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.16
    Published on: 14 Aug 2018  | Viewed:445  | Downloaded:19
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  • Review|Open Access

    Recent advances in cerebral cavernous malformation research

    Akhil Padarti, Jun Zhang
    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are manifested by microvascular lesions characterized by leaky endothelial cells with minimal intervening parenchyma predominantly in the central nervous system predisposed to hemorrhagic stroke, resulting in focal neurological defects. Till date, three proteins are implicated in this condition: CCM1 (KRIT1), CCM2 (MGC4607), and CCM3 (PDCD10). These multi-domain proteins form a protein complex via CCM2 that function as a docking site for the CCM signaling complex, which modulates many signaling pathways. Defects in the formation of this signaling... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebrovascular Diseases
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:21. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.34
    Published on: 28 Aug 2018  | Viewed:437  | Downloaded:22
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  • Review|Open Access

    A current view of G protein-coupled receptor - mediated signaling in pulmonary hypertension: finding opportunities for therapeutic intervention

    Derek Strassheim, Vijaya Karoor, Kurt Stenmark, Alexander Verin, Evgenia Gerasimovskaya
    Pathological vascular remodeling is observed in various cardiovascular diseases including pulmonary hypertension (PH), a disease of unknown etiology that has been characterized by pulmonary artery vasoconstriction, right ventricular hypertrophy, vascular inflammation, and abnormal angiogenesis in pulmonary circulation. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family in the genome and widely expressed in cardiovascular system. They regulate all aspects of PH pathophysiology and represent therapeutic targets. We overview GPCRs function in vasoconstriction, vasodilation, vascular... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Remodeling 2018: the Updates
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:29. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.44
    Published on: 30 Sep 2018  | Viewed:427  | Downloaded:29
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  • Review|Open Access

    Histone deacetylases in vascular permeability and remodeling associated with acute lung injury

    Laszlo Kovacs, Anita Kovacs-Kasa, Alexander D. Verin, David Fulton, Rudolf Lucas, Yunchao Su
    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe progressive disorder that arises from a wide range of causes such as toxins or inflammation, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. There are no effective therapeutic options apart from mechanical ventilation strategies. While the mechanisms that govern the clinically relevant process of increased endothelial cell (EC) permeability and remodeling associated with ALI are under intense investigation, our knowledge of the processes that determine barrier enhancement or preservation are far from completion. Recently, epigenetic mechanisms have... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Remodeling 2018: the Updates
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:15. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.06
    Published on: 10 Jul 2018  | Viewed:409  | Downloaded:20
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Bortezomib-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report

    Paolo Candelaresi, Maria Chiara Casorio
    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon neurological syndrome due to autoregulation breakthrough with subsequent predominantly vasogenic oedemain associated with several clinical conditions. It is being increasingly reported in antineoplastic-treated patients. Here we report the case of a 72-year-old man who developed PRES during the second cycle of bortezomib treatment for multiple myeloma. Unlike usual PRES cases, only moderate hypertension was present at symptom onset, supporting the hypothesis that alterations of the vascular endothelium and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebrovascular Diseases
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:11. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.09
    Published on: 18 May 2018  | Viewed:342  | Downloaded:30
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Iatragenic injury to axillary artery: rescued by endovascular repair

    Chih-Chen Kao, Yao-Kuang Huang
    Most of axillo-subclavian artery injuries are due to violence. Iatrogenic injuries to such vessels are relatively rare. We hereby present the first report of pigtail catheter insertion for right upper chest wall hematoma drainage resulting in penetration of axillary artery and pseudoaneurysm formation. A 39-year-old male victim of motor vehicle accident developed right upper chest wall hematoma after initial conservative treatment. Subsequent admission was arranged and pigtail catheter drainage was performed under sonography guidance. The procedure caused penetrating injury to his right... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:18. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.42
    Published on: 10 Aug 2018  | Viewed:281  | Downloaded:10
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Is tacrolimus more likely to induce diabetes mellitus than ciclosporin in heart transplant patients?

    Anisha Jagpal, Sudeep Das De, Sanjeet Singh Avtaar Singh, Alan Kirk
    Aim: Immunosuppression has evolved since the first successful orthotopic heart transplant 50 years ago. Currently, calcineurin inhibitors lie at the focal point of the immunosuppressive regimen. However, these drugs exhibit a variety of side effects, including hyperglycaemia. This in turn compounds the risk of cardiovascular disease. There is conflict around which calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus or ciclosporin, is more likely to induce diabetes. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from 52 patients who had received a heart transplantation at the Scottish heart transplant unit between... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Cardiovascular Surgery
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:24. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.27
    Published on: 13 Sep 2018  | Viewed:266  | Downloaded:37
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  • Review|Open Access

    Vascular approaches and its potential implications in transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Alessandro Sticchi, Edoardo Bressi, Annunziata Nusca, Germano Di Sciascio
    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become in the last years a primary therapeutic tool in order to treat percutaneously severe aortic stenosis in frail patients with multiple comorbidity and a high surgical risk. In almost all cases, the complexity of patients who are candidates for TAVI is also reflected in challenging access sites. This vascular issue addresses the invasive play of constantly evolving devices and resulting complications have a considerable impact on patient morbidity and mortality. For this reason, the study and the choice of the different access site... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Cardiovascular Surgery
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:23. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.47
    Published on: 13 Sep 2018  | Viewed:266  | Downloaded:10
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  • Review|Open Access

    The endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in hypertension: the diagnostic and predictive values

    Alexander E Berezin
    Hypertension remains a leading risk factor of cardiovascular (CV) events and disease in the general population. The prevalence of hypertension is present in developed and developing countries and according to various assessments may fluctuate between 30% to 90% with considerable regional differences. Hypertension influences CV risk and mortality rate through target organ damages that affect vasculature particularly endothelium. Endothelial dysfunction is an independent risk factor of CV complications. Recent studies have shown that a decreased number and altered function of circulating... Read more
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:22. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.23
    Published on: 13 Sep 2018  | Viewed:247  | Downloaded:15
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  • Review|Open Access

    Complications of transcatheter aortic valve replacement and rescue attempts

    Burak Can Depboylu, Serkan Yazman, Bugra Harmandar
    As a novel treatment modality, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is widely used for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis who have high surgical risk worldwide. However, this promising alternative procedure has different types of complication risks including, cerebrovascular events, vascular complications, bleeding, coronary obstruction, myocardial infarction, valve regurgitation, valve malpositioning or migration, conduction disturbances and acute kidney injury which may occur during and/or after the procedure. These complications may be seen up to one third of the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Cardiovascular Surgery
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:26. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.39
    Published on: 21 Sep 2018  | Viewed:198  | Downloaded:11
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  • Review|Open Access

    Fetal programming and its effects on vascular pulmonary circulation

    Carmela Rita Balistreri
    Into the scientific community, consensus about the emerging concept of “the fetal origin of adult diseases” is growing. It sustains that the parental (of the two parents) adversities, and the related external influences, during the intra-utero/perinatal life of each eutherian mammal organism, human included, can permanently set the structure and functionality of specific body systems (i.e., immune, endocrine, nervous and cardiovascular systems), predisposing them to early ageing and disease during adulthood. The pulmonary circulation system also appears to be one of its targets. Established... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Remodeling 2018: the Updates
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:25. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.35
    Published on: 19 Sep 2018  | Viewed:196  | Downloaded:8
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  • Meeting Abstracts|Open Access

    Selected meeting abstracts of 2018 healthcare and cardiology conference

    Ahmed Ahmed Fouad Abdelwahab Ahmed
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:31. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.58
    Published on: 16 Oct 2018  | Viewed:155  | Downloaded:4
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  • Review|Open Access

    Thrombospondins and remodeling of the tumor microenvironment

    Olga Stenina-Adognravi, Santoshi Muppala, Jasmine Gajeton
    Vascular remodeling defines cancer growth and aggressiveness. Although cancer cells produce pro-angiogenic signals, the fate of angiogenesis critically depends on the cancer microenvironment. Composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and tumor inflammation determine whether a cancer will remain dormant, will be recognized by the immune system and eliminated, or whether the tumor will develop and lead to the spread and metastasis of cancer cells. Thrombospondins (TSPs), a family of ECM proteins that has long been associated with the regulation of angiogenesis and cancer, regulate... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Remodeling 2018: the Updates
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:30. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.40
    Published on: 10 Oct 2018  | Viewed:147  | Downloaded:4
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Age-associated features of oxidative stress as marker of vascular aging in comorbid course of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Valeriya Nemtsova, Olexander Bilovol, Irina Ilchenko, Anna Shalimova
    Aim: To evaluate activity of oxidative stress (OS) as marker of vascular aging in different age groups of patients with combined course of arterial hypertension (HT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: 126 patients (average age 57.8 ± 6.2 years) with stage II HT and compensated T2DM were divided into 2 subgroups: 2a (n = 59) - aged 45-60 years; 2b (n = 97) - aged 61-75 years; 30 patients with isolated stage II HT (comparison group), 20 practically healthy individuals (control group). The activity of antioxidative [glutathione peroxidase, sulfhydryl groups (SH-groups)] and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Atherosclerosis, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Syndrome: Commonalities and Differences in Phenotypes, Metabolic Pathways and Genetics
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:27. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.48
    Published on: 28 Sep 2018  | Viewed:145  | Downloaded:8
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  • Review|Open Access

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: is anesthesiologic management linked to surgical outcomes?

    Chiara Candela, Annalaura Di Pumpo, Alessandro Centonze, Fabrizio Cucciniello, Domenico Sarubbi, Felice Eugenio Agrò
    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the current standard treatment for severe aortic stenosis, nonetheless, many patients are not suitable to AVR because of high risk related to advanced age, impaired cardiac function, or comorbidities. Given these considerations, transcatheter aortic valve replacement or implantation (TAVR or TAVI) has emerged in the last decade as an alternative to surgery and has become the treatment of choice for severe aortic stenosis in patients with prohibitive surgical risk. In the context of this kind of hybrid procedure, the anesthesiologist plays a central role... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Cardiovascular Surgery
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:28. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.31
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:137  | Downloaded:4
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  • Correction|Open Access

    Correction: Energetic metabolism in cardiomyocytes: molecular basis of heart ischemia and arrhythmogenesis

    María Sofía Martínez, Andrés García, Eliana Luzardo, Mervin Chávez-Castillo, Luis Carlos Olivar, Juan Salazar, Manuel Velasco, Joselyn Joanna Rojas Quintero, Valmore Bermúdez
    Vessel Plus 2018;2:32. | doi:10.20517/2574-1209.2018.68
    Published on: 23 Oct 2018  | Viewed:0  | Downloaded:0
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